How can you be sure that the news you read and share is true?
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Obama on Fake News
Obama on Fake News
Trump on Fake News
News literacy - the ability to analyze and judge the reliability of news and information and to differentiate facts from opinions or assertions in the media
Fake news - information that is clearly and demonstrably fabricated and that has been packaged and distributed to appear as legitimate news
This narrow definition seeks to distinguish fake news from other types of misleading information by clarifying that the former is patently false and was created and presented in a way meant to deceive consumers into thinking it is real. Fake news refers to a specific piece of information; it does not refer to any particular type of news outlet, individual, or other actor.
Misleading - headline doesn’t match story or story is reported without providing relevant background information or context
Misleading or out-of-context information does not on its own constitute fake news. This kind of information is not wholly fabricated, and it can exist within a news report that is based on actual events that occurred. Hyperpartisan sites often share a combination of fake news and posts that simply contain misleading information or that lack proper context.
Partisan - prejudiced in favor of a particular cause or political ideology
Clickbait - shocking or teasing headlines
Clickbait pieces are articles that feature headlines designed to get people to click on them, often by presenting a misleading or warped sense of what the post is about. This does not necessarily constitute fake news, as these types of headlines or accompanying posts can be technically factually true (not fabricated) but nevertheless misleading.
Satire - meant as a joke or to be humorous
Satire is writing or art designed to make social commentary based on mockery and imitation of real-life events or actors. Satire is different from fake news in that its purpose is to entertain or inspire consumers, rather than to deceive them. Some fake news sites may claim to be satirists but do not openly advertise themselves as satire, therefore suggesting an intent to deceive.
Post-truth (chosen as the 2016 word of the year by Oxford Dictionaries, with this definition) - relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief
Confirmation bias - the tendency to selectively search for and consider only information that confirms one’s beliefs
Many of these definitions are provided by and/or adapted from:
“Understanding the Fake News Universe.” Media Matters, 15 Dec. 2016, mediamatters.org/research/2016/12/15/understanding-fake-news- universe/214819#d6.
Now use your 10 Questions handout to evaluate the news stories provided HERE.